Allen and Ferguson classification of subaxial cervical spine injuries

Allen and Ferguson classification is used for research purposes to classify subaxial spine injuries. It is based ofn the mechanism of injury and position of the neck during injury. This classification was proposed by Allen and Ferguson in 1982and at the time of writing (July 2016) remains the most widely used system for describing subaxial cervical spine injury.


  • flexion and compression
  • vertical compression
  • flexion and distraction (facet joint dislocation)
  • extension and compression
  • extension and distraction
  • lateral flexion