Sternal foramen (or perforated sternum) is a developmental variant of the sternum and results from incomplete fusion of the sternal ossification centers. They are common, occurring in approximately 5% of the population (range 4.3-6.7%). They are most commonly found in the inferior aspect of the sternal body.
Small foramina can be mistaken for sternal fractures.
Xiphoid foramen can also occur, but is of lesser clinical significance .