They are seen more commonly in children younger than 10 years. There is no definite gender predilection reported at the time of writing.
The tumor contains elements of both malignant neuroblastoma and benign ganglioneuroma. They may be encapsulated.
They are commonly attached to a nerve trunk.
Imaging features can be variable and can range from a solid, well-marginated, oblong paraspinous mass with homogeneous enhancement or as an irregular, cystic, poorly-marginated, locally-invasive mass with evidence of metastatic disease.
Non-specific but may hint to an initial diagnosis in larger lesions. May show a posterior retroperitoneal, mediastinal, or neck mass.
Not a typical imaging modality of choice but may show a heterogeneously echogenic lesion if able to be identified. Anechoic areas may be present corresponding to regions of hemorrhage and/or necrosis
Variable and can range from homogeneous (especially small lesions) to heterogenous (large lesions).
Maybe be more useful in assessing intraspinal extension.
- T1: usually low signal intensity; hemorrhagic areas may manifest as areas of high signal
- T2: usually high signal intensity but heterogenous; cystic areas may be high signal.
- T1 C+: may show variable enhancement
Calcification may be difficult to detect at MR imaging; signal voids may be apparent.