mean sac diameter

Mean sac diameter (MSD) is a sonographic measurement of the gestational sac, which is usually first seen at around 3 weeks after conception (5 weeks after the last menstrual period), when it measures 2-3 mm.


MSD = (length + height + width)/3

Normal MSD (in mm) + 30 = days of pregnancy


For a healthy gestation, it is suggested that the mean sac diameter should be at least 5 mm greater than the crown rump length.

The MSD increases by about 1 mm per day, however, there is considerable variation in the rate of MSD growth, with overlap between viable and non-viable pregnancies. The diagnosis of pregnancy failure should not be made on the basis of MSD growth .

Transvaginal ultrasound
  • MSD of >25 mm with absent fetal pole indicates pregnancy failure (missed miscarriage
  • an MSD of 16-24 mm without an embryo is suspicious for pregnancy failure, but not definitive.
  • when the MSD measures 8 mm a yolk sac should be visible, however ,lack of a yolk sac is not an indication of pregnancy failure
Transabdominal ultrasound
  • when the MSD measures ≥25 mm a fetal pole should be visible
  • when the MSD measures 20 mm a yolk sac should be visible
    • lack of a yolk sac is not a definite indication of pregnancy failure

See also 

Siehe auch:
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