Mumps is a (usually) self-limited viral infection that often occurs in epidemics among children. Its incidence has markedly diminished in countries with childhood vaccination programs, but may still be seen in adult patients who have not received vaccinations or who have waning immunity. It may produce severe morbidity in adults including sterility.
Mumps is both the lay persons' and clinicians' name for the disease. Its technical name is epidemic parotitis, however, this is rarely used.
Patients often present with non-specific viral symptoms of fever, myalgias, and malaise. More specific features include facial swelling (parotitis) in 95% and/or testicular pain (orchitis).
Serum IgM antibody testing can be used to confirm a case of mumps, if necessary.
Mumps is a single-stranded RNA paramyxovirus .
Mumps typically results in classic clinical signs and symptoms, some of which can be supported through radiological features:
- mumps parotitis
- viral meningitis and/or encephalitis
- mumps is one of the rare causes of truly isolated orchitis
- may cause infertility
- oophoritis: may cause infertility
- pancreatitis (uncommon)
History and etymology
The word "mumps" arises from the 1500s, and derived from a word variably used to mean "to grimace" or "to whine".