Musculoskeletal arteriovenous malformations
Musculoskeletal arteriovenous malformations (AVM) are typically congenital, growing with age and may not manifest until adolescence or adulthood. Spinal AVMs are discussed separately.
Patients can present with a palpable mass (with or without erythema or a thrill) and/or pain .
Musculoskeletal AVMs can occur within :
- soft tissues
- intermuscular fascia
- repeated intra-articular bleeds can produce degenerative change similar to haemophilic arthropathy
- bone: rare; mostly craniofacial with appendicular skeletal even more rarely involved