programmable cerebrospinal fluid shunt

Programmable cerebrospinal shunts are a type of ventriculoperitoneal shunt that can be set to different CSF pressure settings. They are of particular value in normal pressure hydrocephalus and in pediatric patients.

The 2010 AJNR article by Lollis et al. provides radiographic features (with reference images) of the settings of five common valves (Codman Hakim Programmable Valve, Medtronic Strata, Sophysa Sophy SM8, Sophysa Polaris SPV, and Aesculap Miethke proGAV). It is important to acquire zoomed in radiographs of the valve en face, to best assess the setting.