Bronchial arterial enlargement
Bronchial arterial enlargement usually occurs as a result of bronchial pulmonary shunting. This can result from a number of situations:
- underlying parenchymal pathology
- those with certain forms of pulmonary hypertension .
- chronic pulmonary embolism
- following certain repaired of congenital cardiac anomalies
- e.g. arterial switch for simple transposition of the great arteries
Assessment of the presence and extent of bronchial arterial enlargement is particularly important in those presenting with hemoptysis.
The bronchial arteries typically arise from the thoracic aorta at the T3-T8 levels. 80% percent of arteries arise from the T5 to T6 level. Enlarged arteries are often seen and dilated tortuous vessels at this level in the mediastinum. In this situation, the proximal bronchial arteries are usually >2 mm .