The glenoid or glenoid cavity or fossa is the shallow depression of the scapula found on the lateral angle.

Gross anatomy

  • glenoid labrum: the cavity has a fibrocartilaginous structure on its margin called the glenoid labrum which is continuous superiorly with the tendon of the long head of biceps brachii
  • joint capsule: attaches to the glenoid outside the glenoid labrum and tendon of the long head of biceps brachii
  • superior, middle and inferior glenohumeral ligaments: thickenings of the joint capsule

The glenoid articulates with the head of humerus to form glenohumeral joint.

Glenoid morphology in arthropathy

The Walch classification is sometimes used in assessing glenoid wear.

Variant anatomy

  • dentate glenoid (glenoid hypoplasia)
    • shallow glenoid fossa and hypoplasia of the lower two-thirds of the glenoid and scapula neck with irregular joint surface
  • Buford complex

Related pathology