Hepatitis B virus
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a circular DNA virus endemic in many parts of the world. It is a risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
Route of transmission
The most common route of transmission is regionally-dependent. In endemic areas, vertical transmission from mother to child is more common. In other areas, contaminated needles, blood products, and unprotected sex is more common.
- genotype A: sub-Saharan Africa
- genotype B: Japan and East Asia
- genotype C: China, Korea, Japan, Southeast Asia
- most closely associated with HCC
- genotype D: Eastern Europe, North Africa, Russia, Middle East, India
- genotype E: West Africa
- genotypes F, G, H: Central and South America
Treatment and prognosis
Vaccination programs have been effective in many parts of the world to decrease the incidence of disease.
Patients with chronic hepatitis B may benefit from a hepatocellular carcinoma screening program.
Acute infection with the hepatitis B virus may result in acute hepatitis.