superficial thrombophlebitis

Superficial thrombophlebitis, also called superficial venous thrombosis (SVT), is a pathological condition characterized by the presence of a thrombus in the lumen of a superficial vein, accompanied by inflammatory reaction of adjacent tissues.

Terminology

Some authors, however, reserve the term superficial venous thrombosis to the situation when there is thrombosis of a superficial vein without any associated inflammatory component .

Clinical presentation

Typically presentations include:

  • tender erythematous areas overlying a superficial vein
    • may be warm to touch
    • there may be palpable mass and surrounding edema
  • visible distension of the vein proximal to the thrombosis
  • there may be signs of chronic venous disease: visible varicosities, skin pigmentation, or palpable cords

Pathology

Like deep vein thrombosis (DVT), its occurrence is also related to the Virchow's triad.

Etiology

There are a large number of potential causes which does overlap with the causes of DVT :

  • varicose veins (most common)
    • morphological changes that predispose to stasis and consequently to the development of thrombotic process
  • prolonged immobilization
  • surgery/trauma
  • obesity
  • hypercoagulable states, e.g. factor V Leiden thrombophilia
  • oral contraceptive use
  • past history SVT or DVT
  • intravenous cannula use
  • malignancies (see: Trousseau syndrome)
  • autoimmune disease
  • inflammatory conditions, in particular, Behcet disease and Buerger disease