urinoma

Urinomas, or uriniferous fluid collections, are urine collections usually found in the retroperitoneum, most commonly in the perirenal space, as a consequence of renal tract leakage caused by urinary obstruction, trauma, or post-instrumentation.

Terminology

As there is no definitive distinction between the terms urinoma and urinary leakage in the literature, the terms are often used interchangeably. This article will treat them differently with the former as a consequence of the latter, i.e. urinomas are encapsulated urine collections due to urinary leakage.

Pathology

As urine extravasates into the retroperitoneum, it can cause lipolysis of the surrounding fat with resultant encapsulation of urine, forming a urinoma.

Urinomas most often due to urinary obstruction secondary to :

Urinomas also may be due to:

Location and morphology
  • cystic mass in perirenal space: localized perirenal urinoma (most common)
  • cystic mass filling entire perirenal space: diffuse perirenal urinoma
  • sickle-shaped collection: subcapsular urinoma
  • encapsulated expanding intrarenal cystic mass separating renal tissue fragments: intrarenal urinoma

Radiographic features

Fluoroscopy
Intravenous pyelogram 

Contrast extravasates outside of the collecting system, into the surrounding retroperitoneal tissues.

Ultrasound

Presents as a thinned-walled anechoic collection usually found partially contouring any portion of the renal tracts.

CT and MRI

On CT and MRI, a urinoma shows water attenuation, low signal intensity on T1-weighted imaging, and very high signal intensity on T2-weighted imaging, similar to simple fluid elsewhere in the body.

Urine leakage is usually directly demonstrated on contrast-enhanced studies on the excretory phase due to direct contrast extravasation from the urinary tract .

Treatment and prognosis

  • small urinomas are usually treated conservatively
  • larger, persistent or symptomatic urinomas: percutaneous drainage is often used with the treatment of the underlying cause of urine leakage