A banana fracture refers to a complete, horizontally oriented pathological fracture seen in deformed bones affected by Paget disease. This term is often used to describe incremental fractures that occur in Paget disease as well, which represent a type of insufficiency fracture.

The former of these two usages seems to be the original usage, although the term "banana fracture" has evolved to include both definitions, presumably because the transverse insufficiency fractures seen on the convex surface of a deformed, pagetoid bone are more common, and malicious attendings wanted something to quiz residents on.

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