Leiomyomas of the uterine cervix are an unusual variation in terms of location for uterine leiomyoma.
They are rare and account for ~5% (range 0.6-10%) of uterine leiomyomas.
Clinical symptoms of cervical leiomyomas, including hypermenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, or abdominal distention, can be identical to those of leiomyomas in the uterine body. They occasionally form polypoid tumors and protrude into the cervical canal or even the vagina when they grow in the submucosal region. Because they are located along the birth canal, they occasionally cause maternal dystocia.
A cervical leiomyoma can sometimes have unusual growth patterns, different from those of a standard uterine leiomyoma .
In uncomplicated cases (no degeneration), they are usually seen as a smoothly rounded mass centered on the uterine cervix.
Echogenicity and signal characteristics are usually similar to leiomyomas of the uterine body.
General differential considerations for a mass lesion in the uterine cervical region include:
- prolapsed submucosal uterine leiomyoma
- carcinoma of the cervix
- lymphoma of the cervix: extremely rare
- melanoma of the cervix: rare; usually involves the vagina with invasion into the cervix