Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas (staging)
Staging of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas is performed with cross-sectional imaging and relies on the identification of local tumor extent, and invasion of adjacent spaces. For a discussion of this entity please refer to the parent article: juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma.
The staging system proposed by Sessions et al. is the most commonly used and divides tumors into three stages:
- stage I
- Ia: limited to nasal cavity/nasopharynx
- Ib: extension into one or more paranasal sinuses
- stage II
- IIa: minimal extension through sphenopalatine foramen into pterygomaxillary fossa
- IIb: fills pterygomaxillary fossa bowing the posterior wall of the maxillary antrum anteriorly or extending into the orbit via the inferior orbital fissure.
- IIc: extends beyond pterygomaxillary fossa into infratemporal fossa (modified by Radkowski )
- stage III: intracranial extension