Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is a common procedure post ACL tear. It aims to reduce knee joint instability and thus prevent any further meniscal and/or cartilage damage.


There are numerous surgical techniques for ACL reconstruction :

  • autograft reconstruction
    • bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft
    • hamstring autograft
      • four-strand autograft from semitendinosus and/or gracilis tendons
    • quadriceps tendon autograft
  • allograft reconstruction
  • synthetic graft reconstruction

The bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft and four-strand hamstring autograft are the two most commonly employed techniques .


See article anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction complications for further details.


Clinical failure is reported in ~10% (range 6-12%) of patients .  ~17.5% (range 13.6-21.5%) of patients develop symptomatic osteoarthritis post ACL reconstruction .

See also