Campomelic dwarfism, also known as campomelic dysplasia, is a rare form of skeletal dysplasia.
Campomelic dwarfism is rare with an estimated incidence of ~1:200,000 births.
- genital malformations: may be present in ~66% of patients
Diagnosis is usually readily made at birth or with antenatal ultrasound. It is frequently associated a number of non-skeletal abnormalities including:
It is thought to result from a mutation in a gene located on chromosome 17 which encodes for a transcription factor named Sox9 . There may be an autosomal recessive inheritance .
- lower extremity bowing: femoral/tibial bowing
- reduced chest circumference: narrow fetal thorax
- hypoplastic scapulae
Plain films are all that is usually required to confirm the diagnosis.
- dislocated hip and knee joints
- bowing of femur and tibia
- hypoplastic fibula
- dysplastic acetabulum and iliac bones
Treatment and prognosis
Campomelic dysplasia is not compatible with long term survival and 97% of patients die within their first year due to respiratory insufficiency.
History and etymology
It is derived from the Greek "campo" (bent) and "melia" (limb).