congenital cardiovascular anomalies

Congenital cardiovascular anomalies are relatively common, with an incidence of up to 1% if small muscular VSDs are included. As a group, there is a much greater frequency in syndromic infants and in those that are stillborn.

Clinical presentation

Broadly, congenital cardiovascular anomalies can be clinically divided into:

Depending on the lesion and its severity, patients may be asymptomatic or conversely, may present with rapidly deteriorating congestive cardiac failure.


These defects as a group have a heterogeneous etiology with many resulting from an interplay between both genetic and environmental factors.


A list of anomalies and their approximate occurrences (as a percentage of all congenital cardiac disease) are given below:

Other valvular anomalies

Percentages may not necessarily add up to 100 due to overlap and simultaneous occurrence of abnormalities.


Congenital cardiac anomalies can be found with many aneuploid conditions which include:

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