macroglossia

Macroglossia means an enlarged tongue. It may be absolute (greater than the 95 centile) or relative (enlarged compared with oral cavity).

Pathology

Associations

Recognized associations include:

In rare situations macroglossia can present in an adult, with associations including:

Radiographic features

Antenatal ultrasound

Antenatally, macroglossia is best appreciated on a midline sagittal facial view as a protrusion between the upper and lower lips. To satisfy the diagnosis, the tongue should remain outside the mouth regardless of swallowing movements of lips.

If swallowing is impaired, there may be also evidence of polyhydramnios.

Differential diagnosis

Clinically the tongue may appear relatively large with a small oral cavity or a floor of mouth, e.g. micrognathia.

The tongue may be pushed forward if there is a lesion posteriorly such as: