The mitral valve (MV) (or bicuspid valve) is one of the four cardiac valves. It is the atrioventricular valve that allows blood to flow from the left atrium to the left ventricle. It opens during diastole and closes during systole. The valve has anterior and posterior leaflets (cusps), the bases of which attach around the AV orifice to a fibrous ring, known as the mitral valve annulus (MVA), forming part of the fibrous skeleton of the heart. The chordae tendineae are thin strong inelastic fibrous cords that extend from the free edge of the cusps to the apices of the papillary muscles within the left ventricle. Both cusps receive chordae tendineae from both papillary muscles. The anterior cusp is thicker and more mobile than the posterior cusp, and in general the cusps of the mitral valve are smaller and thicker than those of the tricuspid valve.
- mitral stenosis
- mitral regurgitation
- mitral valve disease
- rheumatic heart disease
- mitral valve prolapse
- mitral valve annular calcification
- parachute mitral valve
- mitral valve papillary muscle rupture
History and etymology
The Latin word mitra refers to a turban used to describe the ceremonial head-dress as worn by Catholic bishops (hence the modern word mitre). The valve was initially described as resembling such a hat.