Pre-eclampsia is a disorder of pregnancy involving new-onset hypertension (systolic BP ≥140 mmHg or diastolic BP ≥90 mmHg) and involvement of one or more other organ systems.
Pre-eclampsia affects up to 8% of pregnancies .
- diabetes mellitus
- chronic hypertension
- family history
- advanced maternal age (>40 years)
Pre-eclampsia involves new-onset hypertension after 20 weeks gestation in pregnancy and up to 4-6 weeks postpartum with one or more of:
- renal impairment (doubling of serum creatinine)
- liver impairment (doubling of hepatic transaminases)
- pulmonary edema
- headache or visual disturbance
The addition of tonic-clonic seizures is known as eclampsia.
The exact etiology of pre-eclampsia is still not fully understood. Although central to its development is believed to be the defective development of spiral placental arteries and subsequent placental ischemia.
- mean uterine artery PI may be above 95 percentile
Treatment and prognosis
The only cure for pre-eclampsia is delivery of the fetus. Pre-eclampsia is a major source of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality .