Origin and course
The splenic artery is one of the terminal branches of the celiac trunk, passing left from the celiac axis across the left crus of diaphragm and left psoas muscle. It is a tortuous artery, running superior to the pancreas before turning forward into the splenorenal ligament to the hilum of the spleen. The splenic vein accompanies it inferoposteriorly.
Near the splenic hilum the splenic artery divides into superior and inferior terminal branches, with each terminal branch further dividing into four to six intrasplenic segmental branches.
Branches and supply
- pancreatic branches including the dorsal pancreatic artery, transverse pancreatic artery and greater pancreatic artery (arteria pancreatica magna)
- supply neck, body and tail of the pancreas
- short gastric arteries
- arising before the splenic artery enters the splenic hilum
- run in the gastrosplenic ligament to supply the fundus and upper part of greater curvature of the stomach, and anastomose with the left gastric artery over the fundus
- supplies cardia and fundal regions of the stomach
- left gastroepiploic artery
- runs in the greater omentum along the greater curvature of the stomach to anastomose with the right gastroepiploic artery
- separate origin from the abdominal aorta rather than the celiac trunk (~8%)