One study reports symphalangism of the fifth toe in ~55% (range 40-75%) of the population. It less commonly affects the fourth (~5%) and third toes (~1%) in descending incidence .
Stiffness, lack of volar skin fold and reduced range of motion may be present . More often, it is an incidental finding on radiographs.
Most commonly seen as an isolated anatomical variant as a fusion of the middle and distal phalanges in the 5th toe .
Symphalangism may also be associated with many conditions including :
Historical and etymology
First named by Dr Howard Cushing in 1916 .