Neurodegeneration mit Eisenablagerung im Gehirn

Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA), is a heterogeneous group of rare genetic disorders characterized by accumulation of iron in the basal ganglia, which results in variable neurological disorders including extrapyramidal symptoms, neuropsychiatric and visual.

Numerous genes (at least 10) have been identified, resulting in a variety of specific diseases :


No single demographic is affected, and epidemiology varied depending on the specific condition, ranging from infancy to old age .

Clinical presentation

Patients with NBIA suffer from a variety of neurological symptoms and signs including :

  • extrapyramidal symptoms
    • dystonia, muscular rigidity, spasms, parkinsonism
  • neuropsychiatric
  • optic atrophy
  • retinal degeneration

Radiographic features

Radiographic features will vary among the various entities, but can broadly be thought of as :

  • basal ganglia signal abnormalities
  • cerebellar and cerebral atrophy

Treatment and prognosis 

Although therapies will vary, dystonia is being treated with deep brain stimulation as well as oral or intrathecal baclofen .

Renewed interest in iron chelation is now present with the development of deferiprone .

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