Toxoplasmosis is a common worldwide parasitic disease caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. It is usually an asymptomatic infection, but it is related with several sequelae when acquired in-utero or related with cerebral abscesses due to its reactivation in immunocompromised patients (e.g. HIV/AIDS).

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25-30% of the world's population is estimated to be infected by T. gondii, with a large range of prevalence between countries (from 10 to 80%) .

Clinical presentation

Patients typically present with fever, headache, and malaise. They may later develop personality change and seizures.


Human infection occurs via three primary routes :

  • ingestion of infected meat that has been inadequately cooked
  • ingestion of oocysts contained within feces passed by an infected cat
  • direct transmission from a woman to her fetus

Radiographic features 

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History and etymology

The parasite was first described by Charles Nicolle and Louis Manceaux in 1909 .

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