Popliteal venous aneurysm

Popliteal venous aneurysms are rare than those of the popliteal artery and are mostly asymptomatic. However, due to the disturbance of the venous blood flow, they can lead to potentially life-threatening consequences, such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE).

Epidemiology

Popliteal venous aneurysms are uncommon, during duplex US scans an incidence of 0.1-0.2% was observed, with a slight left-sided and female predominance .

Clinical presentation

Pathology

The pathogenesis is currently poorly understood; congential weakness of the venous wall, inflammation, trauma, and hemodynamic changes have all been suggested as causative factors .

Radiographic features

Phlebography

Used to be the gold standard, no longer routinely used .

Ultrasound

The initial imaging modality of choice, sensitive, with color Doppler also allows dynamic evaluation of blood flow.

CT/MRI

CT and MRI angiography are also capable of demonstrating the pathology .

Treatment and prognosis

Open surgical repair is the mainstay of the treatment .

Complications

  • deep vein thrombosis
  • pulmonary embolism

Differential diagnosis