Squamous cell carcinoma (urinary bladder)
Squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is rare and accounts for only ~3-8% of all bladder cancers (90% are transitional/urothelial cell carcinomas) but nevertheless, SCC is the most common type of non-transitional cell carcinoma involving the bladder . SCC of the bladder is observed more frequently in Egypt, where Schistosomiasis infections are more frequent than, for example, the UK and US.
Squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder is most commonly seen in the setting of chronic irritation, such as that seen from bladder stones.
These tumors tend to be solitary and large at the time of detection, with muscular wall invasion reported in a high proportion of patients.
- antecedent infection with Schistosomiasis
- chronic irritation, e.g. indwelling catheter, bladder calculi
- chronic infection
- intravesical BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guerin)
Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center has published online a nomogram for estimating the risk of bladder recurrence 5 years post-surgery (concordance index 0.75).