viral pneumonia

Viral respiratory tract infection is a broad term given to pulmonary infection caused by viruses.

Pathology

They can be caused by any of a large number of viral agents, including but not limited to:

RNA viruses
  • orthomyxoviridae
    • influenza pneumonia
  • paramyxoviridae
    • parainfluenza pneumonia (HPIV)
  • pneumoviridae
    • respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)
      • RSV pneumonia
      • RSV bronchiolitis
  • human metapneumovirus (HMTV)
    • HMTV pneumonitis
  • measles: respiratory tract infection from measles
  • mumps: respiratory tract infection from mumps
  • coxsackievirus: coxsackievirus respiratory tract infection
  • echovirus: echovirus respiratory tract infection
  • enterovirus: enterovirus respiratory tract infection
  • bunyaviridae
    • hantavirus
  • coronaviridae - human coronaviruses (hCoV)
  • picornaviridae
    • rhinovirus
DNA viruses
  • adenovirus: adenovirus lung infection
  • herpesviridae
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV): EBV pneumonia
  • human papillomavirus (HPV): HPV pneumonia
  • parvoviridae

Radiographic features

Plain radiograph / CT

The most common findings include bilateral perihilar peribronchial thickening and interstitial infiltrates which, particularly in children, due to their small-caliber airways, can result in areas of atelectasis or air trapping. Sometimes airspace consolidation or hemorrhage may also develop. Pleural effusion, hilar lymphadenopathy and pneumothorax are uncommon findings.

Imaging findings alone are not specific enough for the definitive diagnosis of viral pneumonia and radiographic patterns can be variable, depending on the specific viral strain, as well as host factors.