Cuboid

The cuboid bone is one of the tarsal bones located lateral to the lateral cuneiform bone and has an important articulation with the calcaneus.

Summary

  • location: lies laterally in the midfoot
  • articulations: proximally with the calcaneus, medially with the lateral cuneiform and navicular, and distally with the fourth and fifth metatarsals
  • blood supply: lateral tarsal artery, a branch of the dorsalis pedis

Gross anatomy

Osteology

The cuboid is a wedge shaped bone, being widest at its medial edge and narrow at its lateral edge. It has three main articular surfaces: anterior, medial and posterior.

Its anterior surface is separated into two facets by a vertical ridge, allowing articulation of the base of the fourth and fifth metatarsal.

Its medial surface is oval in shape, allowing articulation with the lateral cuneiform and sometimes the navicular.

The inferior (or plantar) surface of the cuboid has a tuberosity, where the peroneus longus muscles passes to insert into the first metatarsal and medial cuneiform.

Articulations
  • proximally / posteriorly with the calcaneus at the calcaneocuboid joint
  • distally / anteriorly with the fourth and fifth metatarsals
  • medially with the lateral cuneiform and navicular
Attachments
Musculotendinous

Flexor hallucis brevis arises from the medial cuboid, adjacent lateral cuneiform and tibialis posterior tendon.

Ligamentous
Relations
  • lateral longitudinal arch: consists of calcaneus, cuboid and fourth and fifth metatarsal bones, from posterior to anterior
  • transverse arch: consists of the bases of the metatarsal bones, cuboid and all cuneiforms

Blood supply

Arterial supply is via the lateral tarsal artery, a branch of the dorsalis pedis.

Innervation

The cuboid is innervated by branches of the lateral plantar, sural, and deep fibular nerves.

Variant anatomy

An additional os vesalianum bone may arise between the fifth metatarsal and cuboid.

Development

Ossification

The cuboid ossifies in cartilage at the ninth month.

Related pathology

Cuboid syndrome describes pain associated with damage to the calcaneocuboid joint and associated ligaments.

Calcaneocuboid coalition