hepatic adenoma

Hepatic adenomas, also referred to as hepatocellular adenomas, are benign, generally hormone-induced, liver tumors. The tumors are usually solitary, have a predilection for hemorrhage, and must be differentiated from other focal liver lesions.


The incidence of hepatic adenomas is unknown, with studies showing migration from the classically described female predominance related to the use of oral contraceptives to an increased prevalence in men, particularly recognizing that obesity and metabolic syndrome are emerging risk factors for adenomas .

Hepatic adenoma is traditionally considered the most frequent hepatic tumor in young women on the oral contraceptive pill.

They are found in certain situations, including :

Clinical presentation

The lesions usually remain asymptomatic until they spontaneously rupture, resulting in abdominal pain. Occasionally rapid bleeding into the peritoneal cavity can lead to massive exsanguination and death.


Hepatic adenomas are usually solitary (70-80% of cases ) and large at the time of diagnosis (5-15 cm) . They are most frequently seen at a subcapsular location in the right lobe of the liver and are often round, well-defined pseudo-encapsulated masses. Occasional dystrophic calcification may be present.

When multiple, usually >10 adenomas , the term hepatic adenomatosis is used. Multiple lesions are frequently observed in patients with type I glycogen storage disease.

Macroscopic appearance

The lesion is well-circumscribed, often subcapsular with yellow coloration on account of frequently abundant fat and lack of bile. Hemorrhagic change is frequent. The tumor may be surrounded by a fibrous pseudocapsule .


Histologically, hepatic adenomas are characterized by proliferation of pleomorphic hepatocytes without normal lobular architecture. These cells frequently have abundant glycogen (thus the link with von Gierke disease) . They are traditionally described as being devoid of bile ducts and Kupffer cells, although this has been shown not to be the case, with a diminished number of Kupffer cells found in many cases . This has an important implication for
Tc-99m sulfur colloid scans (see below).

Molecular classifications

According to the original 2006 Bordeaux classification, there are four subtypes of hepatic adenomas :

Radiographic features


A hepatic adenoma usually presents as a solitary, well-demarcated, heterogeneous mass. Echogenicity is variable :

  • hypoechoic: 20-40%
  • hyperechoic: up to 30%, often due to fat

A hypoechoic halo of focal fatty sparing is also frequently seen.


The attenuation of these tumors is variable, depending on :

  • fresh hemorrhage: may be hyperattenuating
  • fat content may render the mass hypoattenuating

In general, they are well marginated and isoattenuating to the liver. On contrast administration, they demonstrate transient relatively homogenous enhancement returning to near isodensity on portal venous and delayed phase image .

If the rest of the liver shows diffuse fatty infiltration, then they will appear hyperattenuating.

Calcification may be seen in areas of old hemorrhage (5-10% of cases ).


In non-hemorrhagic adenomas, they typically appear as:

  • T1
    • variable and can range from being hyper-, iso-, to hypointense
      • hyperintense: 35-77% cases
  • T2
    • mildly hyperintense: 47-74%
  • in/out-of-phase
    • the presence of fat typically leads to signal drop out on out-of-phase imaging
  • contrast studies
    • T1 C+ (Gad)
      • on the dynamic postcontrast sequence, adenomas show early arterial enhancement and become nearly isointense about liver on delayed images
      • some reports suggest that the enhancement becomes isointense to the rest of the liver by 1 minute
    • T1 C+ (hepatocyte-specific): adenomas usually appear hypointense on hepatobiliary phase (20 mins after injection) due to reduced uptake of Gd-EOB-DTPA/Eovist (cf. FNH which appears iso- to hyperintense)

If hemorrhagic, then blood and its products may lead to significant heterogeneity in signal on all sequences.

Nuclear medicine

Although classically described as a focal photopenic lesion on Tc-99m sulfur colloid scans with a surrounding rim of increased uptake, uptake may be seen in up to 23% of cases . This is accounted for by the presence of Kupffer cells in many adenomas, though they may be reduced in number.

Usually has increased activity on a HIDA scan, but does not take up gallium on a gallium scan.

Treatment and prognosis


In general, and if feasible, adenomas are resected, both to eliminate the risk of spontaneous rupture and to conclusively confirm the diagnosis . In cases where the lesion is small, not subcapsular, and has a typical appearance, some would choose to observe (with imaging and alpha-fetoprotein levels) and cease oral contraceptives. In such instances, the adenoma may regress. In inoperable cases, hepatic arterial embolization may have a role .

Differential diagnosis

General imaging differential considerations include:

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