inguinal hernia

An inguinal hernia is a type of groin herniation,  part of a much larger group of abdominal wall hernias .


They are the commonest type of abdominal wall herniation (up to 80% ) and are most often acquired. There is a recognized male predilection with an M:F ratio of up to 7:1 .

Clinical presentation

Patients most commonly present with swelling and/or pain in the relevant groin, iliac fossa, loin. Men may also have testicular pain.



It is broadly divided into two types:


All of the following confer an increased risk for indirect inguinal hernia:

A direct inguinal hernia is a consequence of weakened abdominal musculature, often brought on by

  • advanced age
  • strain
  • previous abdominal surgery

While inguinal hernias, in general, are much more common in males than in females, direct hernias, in particular, are rare in women since the broad ligament acts as an additional barrier.

Treatment and prognosis

Surgical treatment options include

  • herniorrhaphy
  • hernioplasty

Complications, as in any other abdominal wall herniation, include:

Compared with other types of abdominal wall hernias, the incidence of complications is considered lower .

Differential diagnosis

Possible imaging differential considerations include

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