Fibrothorax is defined as fibrosis within the pleural space and is sometimes referred to as pleural peel. It occurs secondary to the inflammatory response to one of the following events:
- tuberculosis / tuberculous pleuritis / tuberculous empyema: mainly as a late sequela
- thoracic empyema
- asbestos-related pleural disease
- rheumatoid arthritis
Fibrothorax is characterized by relatively smooth pleural thickening (hence peel) that may be calcified. The mediastinal pleura is usually spared, and commonly there is marked volume loss of the affected hemithorax.