spontaneous splenic rupture
Spontaneous splenic rupture (SSR) (or atraumatic splenic rupture) is rare, especially when compared to traumatic splenic rupture.
The pathogenesis of atraumatic splenic rupture is not well understood. Splenomegaly is present in almost all patients (~95%), although rupture of normal spleens (both in size and underlying histology) has been reported .
There is a wide range of underlying causes :
- hematological malignancies, e.g. lymphoma, leukemia (~15%)
- infections (~15%)
- local inflammatory disorders, e.g. pancreatitis (~10%)
- non-malignant hematological disorders, e.g. Langerhans cell histiocytosis
- primary splenic neoplasms, e.g. angiosarcoma, hemangioma
- amyloidosis (primary and secondary)
Features are similar to splenic trauma with hemoperitoneum and perisplenic hematoma. The spleen is more likely to be enlarged in atraumatic ruptures .