Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS), sometimes known as HARDE syndrome, is an extremely rare lethal form of congenital muscular dystrophy. It is primarily characterized by:

Additional anomalies include:



It is considered by many to be inherited in an autosomal recessive manner.

Radiographic features


Different brain abnormalities can be present, such as:

  • diffuse cobblestone cortex
  • complete absence of cerebral and cerebellar myelin
  • cerebellar polymicrogyria
  • pontine and cerebellar vermal hypoplasia
  • hydrocephalus
  • variable callosal hypogenesis

Treatment and prognosis

The overall prognosis is poor with most infants dying within the 1year of life. There is no specific treatment and management is mainly supportive.

History and etymology

It was named after Arthur Earl Walker and Mette Warburg.

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