white matter changes in HIV

White matter changes in HIV have overlapping appearances and varied in etiology. These can be divided into:

  • primary effects of HIV
  • opportunistic infection
  • neoplasms
  • vascular disease
  • metabolic and nutritional disorders
Primary effects of HIV
Opportunistic infection
Vascular disease
  • HIV associated cerebral vasculopathy
    • appears similar to cerebral vasculitis, but without the histopathological changes
    • leucoclastic vasculitis of the vasa vasorum identified
    • may affect large, medium and small vessels
    • may respond to HAART
Metabolic and nutritional disorders
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